Emergency Preparedness 3hr/$21

A14: Emergency Preparedness, 3 CE hours, $21

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Professor Rudolf Klimes, PhD, welcomes you to this online course. Keep going.

START the course here. TAKE the exam at the end. PAY after the exam.

Course Description: The following course contains discussion on Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Planning in the Healthcare Setting and also in the home (non healthcare setting). Emergencies can create a variety of hazards, particularly in an impacted area. Preparing before an emergency incident plays a vital role in ensuring that all individuals have the necessary equipment, know where to go, and know how to keep themselves safe when an emergency occurs.

Course Objectives: At the end of the Emergency Preparedness course, you will be equipped to 1) Identify basic strategies for surviving a disaster in both a healthcare and non-healthcare setting 2) Learned about specific hazards that can affect all individuals globally 3) Increase overall awareness

Course Format: Online linked resources and lectures that you can use anytime 24/7. One multi-choice test.

Course Developers and Instructors: R. Klimes, PhD, MPH (John Hopkins U), well known author and scholar in health-related research and health behaviors. Co-author Dr. Heather Hawkins is a scholar in disease modalities and prevention.

Course Time: About three hours for online study, test taking with course evaluation feedback and certificate printing.

START the course here. TAKE exam at the end. PAY after the exam.

A14: DISASTER PREPAREDNESS

Two different types of disasters can occur:

  1. Internal disaster–An incident that happens on a hospital campus and results in damage to the property or injury to hospital employees.

  2. External disaster– An incident that happens outside of teh hospital and requires preparedness to treat injured victims.

Both internal and external disasters can happen at the same time. For example, an earthquake may occur and damage the facility you are working in (internal) and also destroy homes in the surrounding area(external). Most Healthcare systems have Hospital or Clinic Emergency Incident Command System, which emphasizes a logical management structure, defined responsibilities, clear reporting channels, and a common position names that helps unify employees with the state response plan and other emergency responders.

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A coordinated response should have the following elements:

  • Emergency Operations Center is the incident command, which directs emergency operations, coordinates with external agencies, and provides information to the public.
  • Planning / Finance coordinates information, patient tracking, purchasing, supplies, and the labor pool
  • Operations coordinate casualty triage and treatment, hospital services, ancillary services, and staff support.
  • Logistics coordinates communication, transportation, and facility needs.

In addition to the overall plan, many uses Emergency Call Codes which have specific response plans for different situations. Here are  some common examples.

Common Examples of Emergency Call Codes

CODE RED                                        Fire

CODE BLUE                                      Cardiac Arrest

PEDIATRICCODE BLUE                    Pediatric Medical Emergency

CODE PINK                                       Infant Abduction

CODE PURPLE                                  Child Abduction

CODE YELLOW                                 Bomb Threat

CODE GRAY                                      Aggressive Individual

CODE ORANGE                                 Chemical Spill

CODE SILVER                                   Weapon or Hostage Situation

CODE TRIAGE                                   Disaster: Internal or External

CODE GOLD                                      The Joint Commissionison site

What is your role in a disaster? If a STANDBY ALERT is announced:

  • Your supervisor will direct you where to report or if you should continue your current work assignment.
  • Use payphones if personal calls are necessary. This leaves the in-house telephone lines free for emergency calls and hospital business. Wear your photo identification badge at all times.
  • Stay at your post at the end of your shift until released/reassigned by your supervisor or a FULL ALERT is announced.

If a FULL ALERT is announced:

Leadership is to report to the Board Room or priory designated room. Job Action Sheets should be distributed to coordinate duties. If you are OFFDUTY when a disaster strikes,you also have responsibilities:

  • Keep your telephone free. Do not call the Medical Center or clinic.
  • Listen to radio and television broadcasts. In case the phones aren’t working, you may be notified byTV/radio announcements to report to work. Report to duty when you are next scheduled to work, unless you are notified otherwise.
  • REMEMBER: Always be prepared at home for adisaster. If you have an established family disaster plan, you will feel better knowing that all family members know what to do.

 (Source: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19739 and www.bt.cdc.gove/planning/)

TIPS FOR HEALTHCARE FACILITIES:

  • Emergency identification: Provide guidance on how to recognize a potential emergency situation (such as an anthrax threat or release, suspicious mail, etc.).
  • Initial actions: Upon identification of a potential anthrax threat or release:
  • Do not panic.
  • Isolate contaminated areas.
  • Minimize exposure to others.
  • Turn off local fans or ventilation units and shut down the air handling system in the building, if possible.
  • Keep track of people who may have come into contact with the anthrax. Give this list to both the local public health      authorities and law enforcement officials.
  • Notify the proper authorities once the area has been isolated.
  • Call 9-1-1 for local fire and law enforcement assistance. Call the Federal Protective Service if your building is managed by   GSA.
  • Notify the National Response Center at (800) 424-8802. The NRC will notify the appropriate parties responsible for aiding in     mitigation of these events.
  • Contact the owner or operator of the facility.
  • Notification: A description of the alarm system to be used to notify employees (including disabled employees) to evacuate and/or take other actions.
  • Evacuation policy: An evacuation policy, procedures, and escape route assignments so employees understand who is authorized to order an evacuation, under what conditions an evacuation would be necessary, how to evacuate, and what routes to take.
  • Account for employees: Procedures to account for employees after the evacuation to ensure that everyone got out.
  • Organizational structure: Define an organizational structure that defines the roles and responsibilities of employees in the event of an emergency.
  • Employee training: A description of how employees will be informed of the contents of the plan and trained in their roles and responsibilities.
  • Contact information: The names, titles, departments, and phone numbers of employees who can be contacted for additional information or clarification of some aspect of the plan.
  • Off-hour contacts: A list of key personnel who should be contacted during off-hours emergencies.
  • Emergency drills: Conduct emergency drills to help ensure that the actions outlined in the EAP are carried out properly and safely.

(Source:www.osha.gove/SLTC/etools/anthrax/credible_risk.html)

KEEP IN MIND/HOME PREPARATION:

Households/individuals should consider and customize their plans for individual needs and responsibilities based on the methods of communication, types of shelter and methods of transportation available to them. Other factors to keep in mind include:

  • different ages of members
  • responsibilities for assisting others
  • locations frequented
  • dietary needs
  • medical needs including prescriptions and equipment
  • disabilities or access and functional needs including devices and equipment
  • languages
  • cultural and religious considerations
  • pets or service animals

Building an Emergency Supply Kit:

Once you have gathered the supplies for a basic emergency kit, you may want to consider adding the following items:

  • Prescription medications and glasses
  • Infant formula and diapers
  • Pet food and extra water for your pet
  • Cash or traveler’s checks and change
  • Important family documents such as copies of insurance policies, identification and bank account records in a waterproof, portable container.
  • Emergency reference material such as a first aid book or free information from this web site.
  • Sleeping bag or warm blanket for each person. Consider additional bedding if you live in a cold-weather climate.
  • Complete change of clothing including a long sleeved shirt, long pants and sturdy shoes. Consider additional clothing if you live in a cold-weather climate.
  • Household chlorine bleach and medicine dropper – When diluted, nine parts water to one part bleach, bleach can be used as a disinfectant. Or in an emergency, you can use it to treat water by using 16 drops of regular household liquid bleach per gallon of water. Do not use scented, color safe or bleaches with added cleaners.
  • Fire extinguisher
  • Matches in a waterproof container
  • Feminine supplies and personal hygiene items
  • Mess kits, paper cups, plates, paper towels and plastic utensils
  • Paper and pencil
  • Books, games, puzzles or other activities for children

(Source: http://www.ready.gov/)

GlOBAL SPECIFIC HAZARDS:

·       Anthrax

·       Chemical Hazards

·       Oil Spills

·       Pandemic Influenza

ANTHRAX:

Anthrax is an acute infectious disease caused by a spore-forming bacterium called Bacillus anthracis. It is genrally acquired following contact with anthrax-infected animals or anthrax-contaminated animal products. Anthrax has received heightened attention recently because of its use as a biologival warfare agent.

Discovery of anthrax may occur in several ways:

  • Physical evidence (such as a suspicious package containing powder),

  • Epidemiological or medical observations (such as individual cases of anthrax), or

  • Unsubstantiated threat (such as a phone call or letter stating that anthrax has been used).

Here is additional resources for additional information about identifying suspicious packages:

image001 (2)

CHEMICAL HAZARDS/TERRORISM

 Chemicals have the ability to react when exposed to other chemicals or certain physical conditions. The reactive properties of chemicals vary widely and they play a vital role in the production of many chemical, material, pharmaceutical, and food products we use daily. When chemical reactions are not properly managed, they can have harmful, or even catastrophic consequences, such as toxic fumes, fires, and explosions. These reactions may result in death and injury to people, damage to physical property, and severe effects on the environment.

Unexpected releases of toxic, reactive, or flammable liquids and gases in processes involving highly hazardous chemicals have been reported for many years, in various industries using chemicals with such properties. Regardless of the industry that uses these highly hazardous chemicals, there is a potential for an accidental release any time they are not properly controlled, creating the possibility of disaster.

To help ensure safe and healthful workplaces, OSHA has issued a Process Safety Management Checklist which contains requirements for the management of hazards associated with processes using highly hazardous chemicals.

Process safety management (PSM) is addressed in specific standards for the general and construction industries. OSHA’s standard emphasizes the management of hazards associated with highly hazardous chemicals and establishes a comprehensive management program that integrates technologies, procedures, and management practices.

       (Source: www.osha.gove/SLTC/processsafetymanagement/index.html)

OIL SPILLS:

Every day OSHA had over 146 professionals protecting workers throughout the Gulf. From April 26th through October 1st in 2010, anywhere from 20-40 were assigned solely to the Oil Spill Response. OSHA personnel deployed to all staging areas in Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida. OSHA staff was on the ground and on boats to make sure BP was protecting cleanup workers from health and safety hazards.

OSHA worked as part of the coordinated federal response which included the U.S. Coast Guard and other government agencies that deal with health and the environment to evaluate BP’s efforts and make sure BP put in place all of the precautions needed to protect workers from the hazards associated with cleanup work. When OSHA found problems or learned about them from workers, we immediately brought them to the attention of BP and monitored the situation until they were corrected. OSHA also raised its concerns throughout the Unified Command so they could be addressed across the entire response area.

Exposure to Toxic Chemicals. To determine whether or not workers were exposed to dangerous levels of toxic chemicals, OSHA conducted its own independent air monitoring, both on shore and on the cleanup vessels, and reviewed data from BP, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).

Worker Protection. To help workers understand their risks and what their employers should be doing to protect them, OSHA developed a series of job-specific sheets. Each sheet provides information on the hazards associated with the task and required training and PPE.

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(Source: https://www.osha.gov/oilspills/index.html)

PANDEMIC INFLUENZA:

A pandemic is a global disease outbreak. An influenza pandemic occurs when a new influenza virus emerges for which there is little or no immunity in the human population; begins to cause serious illness; and then spreads easily person-to-person worldwide. A worldwide influenza pandemic could have a major effect on the global economy, including travel, trade, tourism, food, consumption and eventually, investment and financial markets. Planning for pandemic influenza by business and industry is essential to minimize a pandemic’s impact. It is difficult to predict when the next influenza pandemic will occur or how severe it will be. Wherever and whenever a pandemic starts, everyone around the world is at risk. Countries might, through measures such as border closures and travel restrictions, delay arrival of the virus, but cannot stop it. During a pandemic, transmission can be anticipated in the workplace, not only from patient to workers in health care settings, but also among co-workers in general work settings. A pandemic would cause high levels of illness, death, social disruption, and economic loss. Everyday life would be disrupted because so many people in so many places become seriously ill at the same time. Impacts could range from school and business closings to the interruption of basic services such as public transportation and food delivery. Education and outreach are critical to preparing for a pandemic. Understanding what a pandemic is, what needs to be done at all levels to prepare for pandemic influenza, and what could happen during a pandemic helps us make informed decisions both as individuals and as a nation. Should a pandemic occur the public must be able to depend on its government to provide scientifically sound public health information quickly, openly and dependably.

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(Source: https://www.osha.gov/dsg/toics/pandemicflu/index.html)

ADDITIONAL REFERENCES:

Spring

Winter

TEST

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Recommendations for you: Visit the EBOLA course at  http://cecourses.org/more/ebola/. In this course you will learn the science behind the Ebolavirus including the five subspecies, awareness of high frequency transmission modalities, explore the Ebolavirus clinical signs and symptoms, risk of exposure, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention recommendations, and become aware of available resources pertaining to the Ebolavirus including information for Clinicians in U.S. Healthcare Settings.

Reading Recommendations: “Plan B: Rescued from Destruction” by Rudolf Klimes http://www.amazon.com/Plan-Rescued-Destruction-Rudolf-Klimes/dp/1453695001/ref=sr_1_4?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1418246470&sr=1-4&keywords=Klimes+Rudolf

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